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Microsoft Product Activation is a DRM technology used by Microsoft Corporation in several of its computer software programsmost notably its Windows operating system and its Office productivity suite.
The procedure enforces compliance with the program’s end-user license agreement by transmitting information about both the product key used to install the program and the user’s computer hardware to Microsoft, inhibiting or completely preventing the use of the program until the validity of product key for windows server 2003 r2 enterprise edition 32 bit free license is confirmed. The procedure has been met with significant criticism by many consumers, technical analysts and computer experts, who argue that it is poorly designed, highly inconvenient and ultimately does nothing to prevent software piracy.
This technology is also used in Microsoft Office products during activation. When installing a retail copy of Windows or Office, the user is asked to input a unique product key supplied on a certificate of authenticity included with the program, which is later verified during activation. Throughout this grace period, the user will be periodically reminded to activate the program, with warnings becoming more frequent over time. Certain versions of Windows and Office are available under a volume licensewhere a single product key for windows server 2003 r2 enterprise edition 32 bit free key is used for multiple installations.
Programs purchased under this license must still be activated, with the exception of Windows XP and all versions of Office released prior to Office If Windows is читать далее on a computer by an original equipment manufacturer OEMthe operating system is automatically activated without the need for interaction from the user.
On each boot, Узнать больше здесь confirms the presence of specific information stored in the BIOS by the manufacturer, ensuring the activation only remains valid on that computer, even if the product key is used on another machine.
If activation is not performed within the grace period or fails because of an illegal or invalid product key, the following restrictions will be imposed on the user:. When activation takes place, the program saves a record of the verification data in the user’s computer. If the system is booted up with significant hardware больше информации, the application will likely require reactivation to prevent the same copy of the program being installed on two different systems.
On Windows 10 and Windows 11the activation process can also generate a “digital entitlement”, which allows the operating system’s hardware and license status to be saved to the activation servers, game pc ukuran kecil that the operating system’s license can automatically be restored after a clean installation without the need to enter a product key. A maximum of 10 retail transferable digital licenses can be linked to a single Microsoft account.
Product key for windows server 2003 r2 enterprise edition 32 bit free digital licenses are not transferable and therefore do not count against this limit. Activation is performed with a utility supplied with Windows and Office called the Activation Wizard. It can be performed either over the Internet or by telephone. In this case, an installation ID is generated, which is then read to the agent. The agent verifies the information and replies with a confirmation ID, which is then typed into the Activation Wizard.
The Activation Wizard generates verification data primarily based on information about hardware in the computer. In Windows XPinformation about the following ten categories of hardware is included: . Every product key for windows server 2003 r2 enterprise edition 32 bit free a PC is booted, Windows XP checks the hardware configuration against that жмите сюда existed at the time of installation.
From the above list, six or more items must change for the reactivation to be required. The position is complicated in that the network card MAC address is regarded as three items. Therefore, if the network card is not changed, a change to six or more other items will trigger a reactivation. If the network card is changed, then just three other changes will trigger a reactivation. PCs that are considered dockable are treated more leniently as hardware will, by definition, regularly change.
A dockable PC is one that is equipped with a docking port that connects to an expansion unit that features extra ports or hardware these are usually ancillary units custom designed for some laptop PCs. A dockable PC is allowed three extra changes beyond a non-dockable PC before reactivation is required.
The verification data is also based on the product key entered during activation. In some cases, the product key is checked against a list of known illegally distributed keys. Certain retail copies of Windows and Office sold in certain countries classified as emerging markets have geographical activation restrictions, which only allow the user to activate the product within the indicated region.
In Windows 7 and later, significant hardware changes e. Motherboard may require a re-activation. If activation completes successfully, the user can continue to use the application without any further issues or impediments.
Also, if the key gets blacklisted, the application will continue to run as normal unless a clean install and activation is performed after its key has been blacklisted. The following tables illustrate the usage of product activation throughout Microsoft software, specifying whether the programs can be equipped with retail or volume licensing activation as well as geographical activation restrictions.
A personal licence is re-activated on a new machine by logging in to office. While Microsoft says that product activation benefits consumers by allowing Microsoft to produce higher quality software,  it has nevertheless received much criticism regarding its design and implementation, effectiveness at stopping piracy and respect of privacy rights.
For instance, during the development of Windows XP, beta testers strongly criticized the introduction of product activation, particularly because a change in computer hardware required re-activation.
Cyrus Peikari and Seth Fogie, security consultants, considered product activation to be “hostile both to privacy and to human dignity. Others defend Microsoft’s use of product activation. The group concluded by stating that users of genuine Microsoft products ultimately receive superior performance while counterfeit users are susceptible to security issues and lost productivity. Microsoft Product Activation has also been criticized on multiple occasions for violating patent law.
Microsoft Product Activation has been cracked or circumvented on numerous occasions since it was introduced in Ina UK security company called Bit Arts successfully managed to bypass product activation on Windows XP,  while involume license keys for Windows XP were leaked to the public, allowing users who had not purchased a volume license to the operating system to bypass activation.
Ina circumvention measure was developed for Windows Vista нажмите чтобы перейти warez-group Paradox that simulates the BIOS, allowing leaked SLP information to be fed to the operating system, bypassing activation. The following Microsoft products other than Windows, Windows Server нажмите для деталей products from the Office family use activation: . From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article has multiple issues.
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This article needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. January DRM mechanism used by Приведу ссылку. The Tech Herald. Archived from the original on Retrieved Microsoft Docs. Appendix B: Licensing Conditions. Retrieved 3 January Windows Activation. Retrieved October 1, PC World.
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Windows Millennium Edition , or Windows Me marketed with the pronunciation of the pronoun “me” ,  is an operating system developed by Microsoft as part of its Windows 9x family of Microsoft Windows operating systems. It is the successor to Windows 98 , and was released to manufacturing on June 19, , and then to retail on September 14, It was Microsoft’s main operating system for home users until the introduction of its successor Windows XP in October Windows Me was initially positively received, but it soon garnered a negative reception from users due to stability issues, and is now viewed by many as one of the worst operating systems Microsoft has ever produced.
In October , Windows XP was released to the public, having already been under development at the time of Windows Me’s release,  and popularized most of Windows Me’s features, while being far more stable.
After the introduction of Windows XP, mainstream support for Windows Me ended on December 31, , followed by extended support on July 11, At the Windows Hardware Engineering Conference, Microsoft CEO Bill Gates stated that Windows 98 would be the last iteration of Windows to use the Windows 9x kernel, with the intention for the next consumer-focused version to be based on the NT kernel, unifying the two branches of Windows.
However, it soon became apparent that the development work involved was too great to meet the aim of releasing before the end of , particularly given the ongoing parallel work on the eventually-canceled Microsoft Neptune project. The Consumer Windows development team was therefore re-tasked with improving Windows 98 while porting some of the look-and-feel from Windows On July 23, , the first alpha version of Windows Me was released to testers. Called Development Preview 1, it was very similar to Windows 98 SE, with a very early iteration of the new Help and Support feature as the only major change.
Three more Development Previews were released over the subsequent two months. The first beta version was released to testers and the industry press on September 24, , with the second coming on November 24 that year.
Beta 2 showed the first real changes from Windows 98, including importing much of the look-and-feel from Windows , and the removal of real-mode DOS. Industry expert Paul Thurrott reviewed Beta 2 upon release and spoke positively of it in a review. The reason given in the case of Me was that the OS was designed for consumers. However, Thurrott alleged that the real motivation behind both case to force software developers to move to Windows Microsoft also apologized personally to Thurrott, claiming he received misinformation, though in a follow-up article he stated that it was “clear that the decision [ Beta 3 was released on April 11, , and this version marked the first appearance of its final startup and shutdown sounds derived from Windows , as the previous betas used Windows 98’s startup and shutdown sounds.
Although Microsoft signed off on the final build of Windows Me on June 28, , after trialing three Release Candidate builds with testers, the final retail release was pushed back to September 14 for reasons that were not clear. Shortly after Windows Me was released to manufacturing on June 19, ,  Microsoft launched a marketing campaign to promote it in the U. A national partnered promotional program featured the new OS, OEMs and other partners in an interactive multimedia attraction in 25 cities.
Windows Me was released for retail sale on September 14, Windows Me featured the shell enhancements inherited from Windows such as personalized menus, customizable Windows Explorer toolbars, auto-complete in Windows Explorer address bar and Run box, Windows advanced file type association features, displaying comments in shortcuts as tooltips, extensible columns in Details view IColumnProvider interface , icon overlays, integrated search pane in Windows Explorer, sort by name function for menus, Places bar in common dialogs for Open and Save , cascading Start menu special folders , some Plus!
The notification area in Windows Me and later supported bit high color icons. The Multimedia control panel was also updated from Windows Taskbar and Start Menu options allowed disabling of the drag and drop feature and could prevent moving or resizing the taskbar, which was easier for new users.
As a result, IO. SYS could not be loaded and older applications that require real mode could not be run. Microsoft argued that the change improved the speed and reliability of the boot process.
BAT files are used only to set global environment variables. The two files if present are scanned for settings relating to the environment variables, and any other commands present are moved into a Windows registry key see below. The two files thus contain only settings and preferences which configure the “global environment” for the computer during the boot phase or when starting a new virtual DOS machine VDM.
BAT file the user must edit the following Windows registry key:. It is possible to restore real mode DOS functionality through various unofficial means.
Unlike past versions of Windows 9x, Windows Me was entirely aimed at home users, and thus had certain enterprise -oriented features removed. These features were supported on its predecessors, Windows 98 and Windows While some were simply moved to a different location, certain functionality of the Go menu, as well as the Find command on the Tools menu, are no longer available. For the latter change Microsoft recommends using a variety of similar functionality labeled Search. Windows Me could have its components upgraded or have new components installed up to the latest versions:.
Compared with other releases of Windows, Windows Me had a short shelf-life of just over a year. Windows XP is noteworthy that the first preview build of Windows XP then codenamed “Whistler” was released to developers on July 13, , two months before Me’s general availability date. Microsoft planned to end support for Windows Me on December 31, However, in order to give customers more time to migrate to newer Windows versions, particularly in developing or emerging markets, Microsoft decided to extend support until July 11, The Windows Update website continued to be available after Windows ME’s end of support date, however, during , Microsoft retired the Windows Update v4 website and removed the updates for Windows ME from its servers.
Windows Me initially received generally positive reviews, with reviewers citing the operating system’s integrity protection branded as “PC Health” and the new System Restore feature as steps forward for home users. As time went on, the reception became more negative, to the point where it was heavily panned by users, mainly due to stability issues.
Retrospectively, Windows Me is viewed as the worst operating system Microsoft has ever produced, being unfavorably compared to its immediate predecessor and successor. The article states: “Shortly after Me appeared in late , users reported problems installing it, getting it to run, getting it to work with other hardware or software, and getting it to stop running.
System Restore suffered from a bug in the date-stamping functionality that could cause System Restore to date-stamp snapshots that were taken after September 8, , incorrectly. This could prevent System Restore from locating these snapshots and cause the system restore process to fail.
Microsoft released an update to fix this problem. Byron Hinson and Julien Jay, writing for ActiveWin, took an appreciative look on the operating system. On the removal of real mode DOS , they had noted “The removal of DOS has clearly made a difference in Windows Me in terms of stability far less Blue screen of death are seen now and booting speed has greatly increased.
The result is great and the enhancements added are really worth the wait. Along with Windows from the NT family, Windows Me was the last version of Windows that lacked product activation. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Personal computer operating system by Microsoft released in Not to be confused with Windows CD or DVD drive 3. News Center. September 14, Archived from the original on December 27, Retrieved January 28, Archived from the original on December 15, Retrieved February 7, Microsoft Support Lifecycle.
Archived from the original on March 27, Retrieved May 24, The Screen Savers. Archived from the original on October 31, Retrieved January 7, CNET Networks. Archived from the original on December 8, Retrieved July 22, Microsoft PressPass — Information for Journalists. Archived from the original on January 9, Retrieved August 2, Microsoft Help and Support. January 14, Archived from the original on December 10, Retrieved May 4, Archived from the original on March 29, Retrieved February 16, Paul Thurrott’s SuperSite for Windows.
Archived from the original on November 29, Retrieved May 23, Archived from the original on February 18, Retrieved February 18, IT Pro. February 9, Archived from the original on October 26, Retrieved October 23, February 12, Archived from the original on October 27, June 19, Archived from the original on December 30, Retrieved December 29, August 29,